© EPES Mandala 2011

Publications : Lessons Learned

Andria Wisler coordinates and edits this series of articles on the lessons learned gathered from our experts, or external experts with regard to our areas of expertise.
Civil Society organizations (CSOs) compose the Second Pillar of the State.
Principal author: Dr Robin Edward Poulton, repoulton@epesmandala.com

The role of civil society organisations (CSO) is often undervalued, and yet CSOs are vital for development, disarmament, conflict resolution and the rule of law. Experience from many African nations - as well as Europe, America and Asia - provides compelling evidence that civil society plays a fundamental role in social progress. Civil society also provides some of the basic building blocks that promote good governance. Our recent personal experience of working with CSOs includes India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Cambodia; Nigeria, Ghana, Mali, Liberia and Sierra Leone in West Africa; Cameroon, Kenya, Burundi, DRC and other countries. In the present document we provide a few select examples - particularly from West Africa - to illustrate the importance of CSOs and their collective role as Second Pillar of the State in countries where institutions are weak and threat of military rule is real.



· What are Civil Society organisations?

· Traditional and Modern CSOs

· Civil Society is especially important for expressing the voice of women.

· Civil society and Social Capital

· The Social Economy

· Civil Society is an integral structure - and Second Pillar - of the Nation State

· Civil Society plays a key role promoting peace and DDR

· Civil society strengthens good governance

· Conclusion

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Security Sector Reform and Peace Building
Principal author: Dr Robin Edward Poulton, repoulton@epesmandala.com
Editor-in-Chief: Dr Andria Wisler (Georgetown University), akwisler@mac.com
Experience from successful peace building programs leads EPES Mandala to promote a holistic approach involving a range of actions that are often neglected under the label of DDR:

· Confidence building between armed forces and civilians

· Redefining respect and the roles of police and military forces

· Creating a coherent legal framework for peace and disarmament

· Building cooperation between neighboring countries

· Mobilizing civil society for peace building and reducing violence

· Reducing the number of illegal weapons and surplus stockpiles

· Destroying surplus arms and ammunition to build confidence

· Ensuring that official stockpiles are well managed and controlled

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Summary DDR
(Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration) is a misleading shorthand. We prefer the expression 3D4R - or RDRDRDR - which shows how complex the disarmament and demobilization really is. Far from being three simple, consecutive steps, 3D4R involves a complex set of intertwined activities. For a successful result, experience from the field proves that you need to start preparing the R, before you ever get started into the DD.


Plan of the document :

1. DDR is not enough : you need DDR + SSR

1.1. Negotiating a peace framework (including a ceasefire)

1.2. Managing 3D4R, or RDRDRDR

1.3. Investing heavily and quickly in the Peace Economy

1.4. Launching comprehensive Security Sector Reform


2. Lessons Learned

An evolving checklist for programme designers and practitioners.
After all, we never stop learning . and we hope that readers will make suggestions to enrich our list of Lessons Learned.

For more, read on Lessons Learned about DDR by the people of EPES Mandala Consulting
by Dr Robin Edward Poulton, edited by Dr. Andira Wisler'


-- Major publications --